West Africa (part 2)

An updated version (3.0) of Ancestry Composition has been rolled out by 23andme in January 2019 for all its customers. FINALLY it also includes a meaningful African breakdown! I have always believed that the best way to find out about the predictive accuracy of any particular DNA test or update is to look at the results of people who actually know their (recent) origins. In order to improve correct interpretation I have therefore started a survey among African DNA testers. Using their group averages as some sort of rudimentary benchmarks so to speak. Of course also some basic knowledge about DNA testing (in particular 23andme’s reference populations and methodology) as well as historical context will remain essential to really get the most out of your own admixture results!Follow the link below to see my spreadsheet which contains all the individual results I used for my survey findings:

Twelve new African regions on 23andme

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Figure 2 (click to enlarge)

AC-33-Africa.001

Nine specific regions and 3 broadly macro-regions are now available on 23andme’s Ancestry Composition to describe your origins across the African continent (aside from “Broadly Sub-Saharan African” and “North African & Arabian”). The country name labeling is not to be taken too literally, as always. But it is actually quite indicative if you simply take it as a proxy and also take into account surrounding countries. Despite being less specific it will still also be helpful to distinguish between macro-regional areas within Africa: “West African” versus “Central & Southern East Africa” versus “Northern East Africa”, see also Table 1.

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On this page I will be featuring the individual screenshots of West African 23andme testers (from Ghana to Nigeria). In the previous part I have posted screenshots from Senegal to Ivory Coast. Almost all results included in my survey have been shared with me by the DNA testers themselves.Some results were also kindly shared with me by friends. And a few results were collected by me from social media. Naturally I verified the background of each sample to the best of my capabilities but I did not have absolute certainty in all cases. I like to thank all my African survey participants for having tested on 23andme and sharing their results with me so that it may benefit other people as well!

For screenshots of the individual results from other parts of Africa see also:

For screenshots of West African 23andme results before the 2018/2019 update see this page (published in 2015):

At times I will also feature screenshots of people of mixed background. Usually 1 parent being from a specific African country and 1 parent being from Europe or elsewhere. But also Africans with 1 European grandparent, 1 great-grandparent etc..  In order to make the African composition results inter-comparable between all my survey participants I have scaled the African part of 23andme’s breakdown to 100% for people of mixed background. I actually find that especially in these mixed cases 23andme’s update really shows it added value. As most of the times also the known African background of mixed people is fairly well described.

p.s. I will usually only feature screenshots of the African breakdown. You will notice it will often not add up to an expected 100%. In most cases this is because of a well known “bug” in 23andme’s Ancestry Composition. Which causes people of “100% African” descent to show trace levels of non-African admixture or “unassigned” ancestry. This can generally be considered “noise”, i.e. reflecting an artefact of the DNA test. Hopefully it will be fixed with the next update. In some other cases though the individuals will have genuine additional non-African ancestry. Which might however be “native” to Africa still. Especially if it is related to North African(-like) DNA. Otherwise it might reflect historical geneflow from outside of Africa within the last 500 years or even earlier.

p.p.s. Sometimes I might draw comparisons with the former African breakdown on AncestryDNA. Unless stated otherwise I will always be referring to the old version of AncestryDNA, current between 2013-2018! As I believe that Ancestry’s last update of September 2018, unlike 23andme’s current update, has not been beneficial for Africans and Afro-descendants. See also:

West African group averages

Table 1(click to enlarge) 

WA group averages

This table contains my main survey findings. It illustrates how 23andme’s new African breakdown is performing for West Africans. Click on this link for an up-to-date version of this table. Although less specific do take notice how also the macro-regional breakdown (West African vs. Central & Southeast African vs. Northeast African) is quite accurate!

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The statistical data displayed in table 1 is evidently based on a minimal sample size but still pretty comprehensive already. A few West African countries are not yet being covered (such as Togo and Niger). Furthermore all of the included countries themselves harbour a multitude of ethnic groups. Right now however I can only make statistical calculations for a few well represented ethnic groups within 23andme’s customer database. A greater degree of genetic diversity and individual variation might therefore be expected across West Africa and also within the listed countries.

Even though only preliminary statements should be allowed at this stage I still suspect that these group averages are already a reasonably good approximation of the main regional components to be found within the genepool of this part of Africa. According to 23andme new African breakdown obviously 😉 . The group averages I have calculated so far often exceeding 70% for each West African nationality and at times even reaching 90%! Although admittedly intermediate countries such as Mali and Benin are somewhat less well captured right now. Because 23andme does not have separate categories in place for these countries, unlike AncestryDNA.

The “Nigerian” region does a good job at predicting southern Nigerian origins. Group averages for my Bini/Edo samples being the highest with almost 94%. But also among Yoruba and Igbo high group averages of around 90% are obtained. Only my Hausa-Fulani survey participants receiving rather low “Nigeria” scores. Dragging down the overall group average among my Nigerian survey group.

During my survey I found that substantial amounts of “Nigeria” can be useful also to indicate Krio and Americo-Liberian background. As well as related Aku lineage among Gambians. The absorption of Recaptive Africans from southern Nigeria but also other places (such as the Congo) leaving a distinctive genetic imprint among certain population segments of Sierra Leone, Liberia and Gambia. Quite impressive that 23andme’s new African breakdown is now able to single it out. See this page for their results.

However “Nigerian” also covers DNA from Benin and Cameroon. Reaching into (eastern) Ghana as well as into the Congo! Given geography and ancient migrations (Kwa/Gbe, Bantu) this is actually not that surprising. Ironically this is reversing the situation on Ancestry. Where Nigerian origins tend to be greatly underestimated (especially after the 2018 update). Either way problematic. But it is probably preferable for many Afro-Diasporans to have their Nigerian lineage slightly overestimated rather than confusingly mislabeled by Ancestry’s “Benin/Togo” and “Cameroon/Congo” regions.

The “Ghanaian, Liberian & Sierra Leonean” region is also fairly predictive but less consistently so. In particular noticeably lower  scores for eastern Ghanaians sofar. Which might be correlated with ethnic background. Still many times quite impressive predictions for in particular Ghanaians of Akan descent. Especially when combined with the ancestral location feature. The initial name chosen for this region “Coastal West African” has rightfully been withdrawn by 23andme. Because in fact also origins from interior West Africa (Burkina Faso, Mali) are covered by this region. Judging by a few Hausa-Fulani results with over 15% “Ghanaian, Liberian & Sierra Leonean” this region is reaching into Niger and northern Nigeria as well. Most likely a consequence of the absence of any “Mali” like region on 23andme. Either way the country name labeling remains awkward and certainly is misleading when taken too literally!

Aside from the expected regions (either “Nigerian” or “Ghanaian, Liberian & Sierra Leonean”) also other regions are frequently reported for my Nigerian and Ghanaian survey participants. Either as minor genetic components but often also with substantial amounts, even in the double digits. Nearly always neighbouring and genetically overlapping West African regions are involved though.  In a way these main secondary regions help make each nationality more recognizable. Rather than just focusing on their primary regions which are in no way unique to any given country! For example Sierra Leoneans will often have “Senegambian & Guinean” as secondary region. While for Ghanaians it will usually be “Nigerian” which comes in second place. I find it quite reassuring that almost all of my West African samples are showing up as above 90% West African (excl. unassigned & broadly “SSA”). Because it implies that whenever an unexpected regional score outside of West Africa is reported you can be more sure that it is in fact indicative of something distinctive.

Among my Ghanaian survey group it was especially people with a Ga-Adangbe background who scored high “Nigeria” scores. On average around 25%! I highly suspect the same could be true also for Ghanaian Ewe from the eastern part of the country. But I have not seen such results yet myself. Undoubtedly the reason Ghanaians score significant “Nigeria” amounts, has to do with the constellation of 23andme’s reference database (which lacks Beninese or Togolese samples) rather than any genuine ancestral connection with Nigeria. At least not a recent one. Going back further in time the Kwa migrations and especially the Gbe migrations from southern Nigeria do play a factor though. See also:

Minor non-West African scores were only relevant for Nigerians, among my West African survey participants. Going by group averages and leaving out atypical Krio and Americo-Liberian results. This concerns in particular subdued “Congolese” scores (~5%) for Igbo and other southeastern Nigerians. And equally minor “Southern East African” and even “Sudanese” scores for northern Nigerians. Given Nigeria’s geographical location as well as ancient migrations (Bantu and Chadic) quite understandable. But still good to be aware that these genetic components have been native to Nigeria for centuries or even millennia already. In particular for Afro-Diasporans wondering about a minuscule score (<1%) of “Sudanese” for example. If truly genuine, it will most likely have been inherited by way of a Sahelian West African ancestor!

These extra regions may be unexpected at first sight for people who according to their own knowledge are “100%” Ghanaian, Nigerian, Beninese etc.. Taking these results at face value can therefore be misleading without correct interpretation. The disclaimers I already mentioned above as well as the links provided below should provide sufficient clarification. As actually this outcome does overall still make sense. In short the advise would be to: don’t overfixate on the labeling of ancestral categories! Rather try to maximize informational value despite imperfections. In fact this does not only go for 23andme but any kind of admixture analysis. In order to avoid jumping to premature conclusions I highly recommend that you atleast browse through some of the topics mentioned in the following links:

 

“Nigerian” region also covers Ghana, Benin and Cameroon

Map 1 (click to enlarge)

Nigerian

Impressive coverage of southern Nigerian DNA for Nigerians themselves. Much better than on AncestryDNA! However considerable overlap also with DNA found to the west and the east of Nigeria. Native Ghanaians and Cameroonians without any recent Nigerian lineage will still often show “Nigeria” scores in excess of 30%. Ironically reversing the situation on Ancestry. Not a perfect outcome therefore. But it is probably preferable for Afro-Diasporans to have their Nigerian lineage slightly overestimated rather than confusingly mislabeled by Ancestry’s “Benin/Togo” and “Cameroon/Congo” regions.

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NIGERIA (Edo/Bini)

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NG (Edo) 95

The Nigerian sample size in my survey was the largest but still rather limited. But it is probably no coincidence that sofar the Edo a.k.a. Bini show the highest group average for “Nigeria”. Because among 23andme’s Reference Populations for “Nigerian” are not only the usual Yoruba samples but also Esan samples. A people from southern Nigeria, closely related to the Edo people. In fact 23andme probably also uses some Igbo customer samples. Although it does not specify them. Either way the differences are not that great and “Nigeria” is very predictive for southern Nigerians across the board.

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NIGERIA (Edo/Bini)

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NG (Edo) - 94.7

Aside from the convincing “Nigerian” score do also notice the correct assignment of “Nigeria” as ancestral location. Based on IBD matching rather than admixture analysis. This new feature on 23andme serves to specify ones more recent lineage. And it does its job reasonably well, at least for Nigerians themselves. Especially considering the enormous ethnic diversity and population size of this West African giant! “Nigeria” was correctly mentioned 14/24 times as ancestral location among my survey participants.

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NIGERIA (Edo/Bini)

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NG (Edo) 94.4

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NIGERIA (Edo/Bini?)

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NG - Edo 91.3

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NIGERIA (Igbo)

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NG (Igbo) 93.4

Not much difference in the “Nigerian” scores for either Igbo, Yoruba, Edo or other southern Nigerians. Which are usually within the 85-95% range. However there is some subtle differentiation if you look carefully. Igbo’s usually have more “Congolese” than “Ghanaian, Liberian & Sierra Leonean”. While it is the opposite for Yoruba people. Very small variance though and in line with geography. On Ancestry the differentiation was usually much greater. See also: Nigerian AncestryDNA results

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NIGERIA (Igbo)

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NG (Igbo) - 92.3

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NIGERIA (Igbo)

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NG - Igbo 92.1

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NIGERIA (Igbo)

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NG (Igbo) 89.9

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NIGERIA (Igbo)

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NG (Igbo) 89

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NIGERIA (Igbo)

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NG (Igbo) 86.6

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NIGERIA (Igbo & Efik)

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NG (Igbo &amp; Efik)

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NIGERIA (Efik)

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NG (Efik)

The highest “Congolese” score I have seen sofar among Nigerians. Not surprising it should appear for this Efik person from Southeast Nigeria. Such genetic overlap between neighbouring regions seems to be inevitable. But still it’s quite limited in this case when compared with the situation on Ancestry.  The 82.9% “Nigerian’ score is still quite decent and informative!

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NIGERIA (Yoruba)

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NG (Yoruba) 95.6

Not much difference in the “Nigerian” scores for either Igbo, Yoruba, Edo or other southern Nigerians. Which are usually within the 85-95% range. However there is some subtle differentiation if you look carefully. Yoruba’s usually have more  “Ghanaian, Liberian & Sierra Leonean” than “Congolese”. While it is the opposite for the Igbo. Very small variance though and in line with geography. On Ancestry the differentiation was usually much greater. See also: Nigerian AncestryDNA results

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NIGERIA (Yoruba)

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NG (Yoruba) 88.3

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NIGERIA (Yoruba)

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NG (Yoruba) 87.9

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NIGERIA (Yoruba)

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NG (Yoruba) 86.1

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NIGERIA (Yoruba muslim)

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NG (Yoruba) -muslim

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NIGERIA (Yoruba)

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NG (Yoruba) 83.1

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NIGERIA (1/2 Yoruba & 1/2 Ashkenazi)

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NG (Yoruba) &amp; Askenazi

Very impressive result for this person with one Yoruba parent from Nigeria and one Ashkenazi Jewish parent. Perfect illustration of how regional admixture CAN be very useful both for the African and European breakdown. Imagine this person had been adopted and was not aware of his origins. Surely such results would help him tremendously in his ancestral quest!

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NIGERIA (Hausa or Kanuri?)

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NG (Hausa or Kanuri)

Although I only have a few samples to go by it is apparent that northern Nigerians are much less well described by “Nigeria” than southern Nigerians. In fact it is their rather low “Nigeria’s scores of around 30-40% which caused the overall group average among my Nigerian survey group to be dragged down a bit. See also table 1. Additional regions are needed to describe the distinctive genetics of northern Nigerians. For this person I actually do not have any certainty about her exact ethnic background. But take notice for example of the unusually high “Ghanaian, Liberian & Sierra Leonean” score. Most likely an indicator of interior West African DNA, in the absence of a “Mali” region. Also the nearly 20% score for broadly “West African” is making it clear that 23andme’s current reference populations are not adequate to specify this person’s origins. Another stand-out feature is the 7.3% “Southeast African” score as well as 1.8% “Sudanese”. Probably related to recent Chadic or Kanuri origins rather than anything further east.

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NIGERIA (Hausa-Fulani)

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NG (Hausa-Fulani) 2

Unlike the previous result which showed a rather subdued “Senegambian & Guinean” score I have much more certainty that this breakdown belongs to a Hausa-Fulani person. For the Hausa-Fulani people it seems that the “Senegambian & Guinean” region acts as an excellent indicator of (partial) Upper Guinean origins. Similar to “Senegal” on Ancestry (prior to their update). Additional confirmation is provided by “Guinea” appearing as ancestral location! Highlighting the history of Fulani migrations originating in Futa Djallon moving eastward into northern Nigeria. Still also a rather high “Ghanaian, Liberian & Sierra Leonean” score! Again most likely an indicator of interior rather than coastal West African DNA, in this case.

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NIGERIA (Hausa-Fulani)

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NG - Hausa-Fulani 1

Remarkable how this person’s “Senegambian & Guinean” score is higher than “Nigerian”! The Hausa-Fulani are a relatively new ethnic group which emerged due to extensive inter-marriage between two originally separate ethnic groups: the Hausa from northern Nigeria/Niger and the Fula people who migrated from the west. Therefore the levels of actual Fulani lineage will show great variation. But it should be very useful to have this “Senegambian & Guinean” region as indicator of such. Likewise the “Nigeria” score might then describe the Hausa part of this person, but most likely not to the full extent. Take notice for example of the additional regional scores for “Ghanaian, Liberian & Sierra Leonean”, “Southeast African”, “Sudanese” and especially the 16% “Broadly West African. Testimony of how 23andme’s current reference populations are not including northern Nigerians. Otherwise their breakdowns would have been less “all over the place” and more specific.

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1/2 NIGERIA (Igbo) & 1/2  LIBERIA

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NAIJA &amp; LIBERIAN

Extraordinary how well this person’s mixed African background is described by 23andme! As can be seen from his own profile details this person is half Nigerian (Igbo going by his surname) and half Liberian. And amazingly this is also pretty much confirmed by his regional scores which are >45% for both “Nigerian” and “Ghanaian, Liberian & Siera Leonean”. The minor remaining scores may be disregarded as irrelevant. This outcome for a mixed person from different parts of West Africa can be seen as encouraging also for Afro-Diasporans. Although naturally their multi-generationally mixed African origins are much more complex and probably also more tricky to disentangle in DNA testing.

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BENIN (1/8 French?)

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BEN

Very insightful to see this result from Benin. Because it highlights how “Nigerian” goes across Nigeria’s borders, both to the west (into Ghana) and the east (into Cameroon). It is counterproductive to obsess about country name labeling in DNA testing. Instead take a practical stance and just consider them to be proxies. Benin being in the middle of Nigeria and Ghana it actually makes sense that this person’s breakdown is somewhat in between “Nigerian” and “Ghanaian, Liberian and Sierra Leonean”. Given that 23andme does not have a separate “Benin/Togo” region in place, like Ancestry does. Although useful as an indicator of Volta-Niger lineage this region on Ancestry actually also needs careful interpretation in order not to be mislead. See also: “Benin/Togo” also describes DNA from Ghana & Nigeria

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“Ghanaian, Liberian & Sierra Leonean” less predictive for eastern Ghanaians

Map 2 (click to enlarge)

Ghanaian, Liberian &amp; Sierra Leonean

Seems to be somewhat less predictive for Ghanaians than for Sierra Leoneans and Liberians, sofar. Which might be correlated with ethnic background. Still many times quite impressive predictions for in particular Ghanaians of Akan descent. Especially when combined with the ancestral location feature. Goes beyond the three countries mentioned in the labeling. As in fact this region is also very descriptive of DNA found in Burkina Faso and naturally the Ivory Coast. Because of the inclusion of Sierra Leonean samples overlapping into Upper Guinea as well. But also to the east reaching considerable scores in Benin (30%) and even among two of my northern Nigerian samples (17%). Somewhat unsatisfactory grouping therefore. Especially given the need of distinction between origins from the Gold Coast, Wind Coast and Bight of Benin for Afro-Diasporans.

 

GHANA (Akan: Fante)

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GH - Akan, Fante 96

Impressive results for this person of confirmed Akan (Fante) background). I did not always have this confirmation of Akan background. But going by surname I have usually assumed it to be the case for the following screenshots below (I did add a question mark whenever I had no confirmation). Similar to my survey findings on Ancestry it might be that ethnic differences within Ghana may account for how predictive the “Ghanaian, Liberian & Sierra Leonean” region turns out to be. Sofar it seems to be most predictive for Akan.  While much less so for the Ga-Adangbe. Although there’s quite some variation as well (a second confirmed Fante sample only scored 58.9%). It will be very useful to also include Ewe and northern Ghanaian samples into my survey for a more complete overview.

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GHANA (Akan?)

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GH - Akan 92.6

Aside from the convincing “Ghanaian, Liberian & Sierra Leonean” score do also notice the correct assignment of “Ghana” as ancestral location. Based on IBD matching rather than admixture analysis. This new feature on 23andme serves to specify ones more recent lineage. And it does its job rather well, at least for Ghanaians themselves.  “Ghana” was correctly mentioned 12/14 times as ancestral location among my survey participants!

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GHANA (Akan?)

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GH - Akan 86

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GHANA (Akan?)

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GH - Akan 81

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GHANA (Akan)

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GH - Akan 70.9

Notice the rather high “Nigerian” score for this person of confirmed Akan background. Not exclusive therefore to people of other ethnic background within Ghana. Also “Senegambian & Guinean” is almost absent. In fact this indicator of Upper Guinean DNA was very subdued (<5%) also for all my other Ghanaian samples.

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GHANA (Akan?)

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GH - Akan 67.6

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GHANA (Akan: Fante)

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GHA - Akan Fante 58

Rather low score for “Ghanaian, Liberian & Sierra Leonean”. But still confirmed by “Ghana” being mentioned as ancestral location. However despite this person identifying as Fante I imagine it might not be impossible that further down the line also other types of ethnic ancestry might exist in his family tree. For example Ewe or Ga-Adangbe. If so, it might explain this seemingly atypical outcome.

 

GHANA (?)

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GHAN - Unknown 78

This screenshot features the initial name chosen for the “Ghanaian, Liberian & Sierra Leonean” region: “Coastal West African”. It has rightfully been withdrawn by 23andme. Because in fact also origins from interior West Africa (Burkina Faso, Mali, northern Nigeria) are covered by this region. Then again the current country name labeling is also a bit misleading. For example the substantial  “Nigerian” scores appearing for Ghanaians in secondary place.  It illustrates the dilemma of adequate regional labeling.

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GHANA (?)

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GH - unknown 70.8

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GHANA (3/4 Akan & 1/4 Ga-Adangbe)

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GHA - 3kwart Akan 1 Ga

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GHANA (Ga-Adangbe)

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GHA - Ga 80

Results of Ga-Adangbe people might show greater variation than among Akan people. Not only because of sometimes distinctive Ga-Adangbe subgroups but also because of different patterns of inter-ethnic unions with neighbouring populations, such as the Akan but also the Ewe. Although not recent, still ancestral ties with southern Nigeria might be more pronounced in eastern Ghana. Because of several historical migrations originating there many centuries ago.

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GHANA (Ga-Adangbe)

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GH - Ga 56.6

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GHANA (Ga-Adangbe)

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GH- Ga 45

Highest “Nigerian” score I have observed sofar for a Ghanaian. As mentioned already not per se indicative of recent Nigerian lineage but rather caused by insufficient sampling from eastern Ghana. Which causes their results to gravitate somewhat to “Nigeria”. Similar to the pronounced “Benin/Togo” scores reported for eastern Ghanaians on Ancestry. See also: “Benin/Togo” also describes DNA from Ghana & Nigeria

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GHANA (1/4 British?)

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GH - kwart UK

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Notes

1) Sometimes it almost seems that admixture analysis is being considered mere guessology by its fiercest critics. Or only fit for cocktail parties as the saying goes 😉 This has however not been my experience. I do agree that performance among the various DNA testing companies and third party websites is very variable. And obviously even more so going back in time. I have myself only tested with 23andme and Ancestry and I found that with correct interpretation and knowledge of their methodology you can indeed derive useful information from admixture/ethnicity results. Which were of course not just pulled out of a hat.

I strongly believe that when Tracing African Roots most people do not have the luxury to be snobbish about admixture analysis. Instead they will want to maximize informational value from any promising source available, despite shortcomings. Combining with other research findings (DNA matches, genealogy, relevant historical context, other types of DNA testing, etc.). in order to achieve complementarity rather than putting all your eggs in just one basket.

I know of many people who made important discoveries about their genetic ancestry by using their admixture results a.k.a. ethnicity estimates. For example I have heard several stories by West Indians who had unexpected Asian admixture, minor but still substantial (>10%). And this information was really useful to them as it lead them to previously unknown Asian contract labourer ancestors. There are plenty of other ancestral scenarios for Afro-Diasporans which can be illuminated by way of the continental breakdown which is usually quite accurate.

The regional or subcontinental percentages are indeed not to be taken all too literally. But again I know several persons who did rely on distinctive regional scores to make a breakthrough in their ancestral quest. For example I have been told about at least three instances of NPE being confirmed whereby the father turned out to be East African instead of African American or West Indian. In one case indicated by the very predictive “East African” category on 23andme (pre-update) but also by a singular combination of “Southeastern Bantu” and “Middle Eastern” regional scores on AncestryDNA. Many times I have also seen how unexpected partial Cape Verdean lineage could quite reliably be corroborated by  “Senegal” scores on AncestryDNA. Not only for African Americans, but also for Hawaiians (due to whaling connections, see upcoming blog post)!

Such cases are bound to increase now that 23andme’s regional granularity has been significantly improved. All the more reason to resist being overly dismissive about admixture analysis, as this may deprive you of valuable insights! Although naturally this does not imply you should stop informing your self about any inherent limitations or imperfections. Reviewing the results of native Africans provides a good independent measure in my opinion to evaluate the usefulness of 23andme’s newly updated African breakdown. For more discussion see also:

2I have been gathering African test results on 23andme for many years already. Originally to gain a greater understanding of the African categories included in 23andme’s old version of Ancestry Composition when it was being updated in 2012/2013. Thanks to the kind willingness of people to share their results I was able then to compile some sketchy “population averages” in 2013 which I shared on 23andme’s online community at that time. These survey findings can still be seen in this online spreadsheet. The individual results can be seen by clicking on the tabs on the bottom of the sheet. The screenshots of their results have also been featured on these blog pages:

In 2018 I blogged about the former Country of Ancestry results being reported for Africans on 23andme (in 2015):