Mandinga/Mandingo is undoubtedly one of the best known African ethnonyms in the Afro-Diaspora. Not only in the USA but also in the Hispanic Americas, Brazil and Cape Verde the Mandinga name is still alive in popular imagination but with very different associations it must be noted 😉 Nowadays in Brazil it is used to refer to a distinct capoeira style. In Cape Verde the socalled Mandinga parades are part of carnival celebrations. While in some Hispanic countries (Peru, Puerto Rico) there still exists a popular saying which goes: “El que no tiene (de) Inga tiene Mandinga“, meaning Continue reading
In the previous post I already discussed the following:
- “Creole” can mean many more things than just referring to Louisiana Creoles.
- Cape Verdean Creoles/Crioulos are probably the historically oldest self-identified Creole population in the world.
- In the colonial era the term “Creole” was also used to distinguish between African born slaves and locally born (within the European ruled colonies) slaves.
- The dating of the socalled Creolization process/transition is fundamental for tracing back African ethnic roots.
I will continue this discussion but in this post I will apply it more generally for Afro-descendants in the Americas and in more detail for African Americans. Continue reading
Cape Verde was used by the Portuguese in the 1500’s/1600’s as a midway station for collecting, “seasoning” and reexporting captives born in Upper Guinea to the labour-starved cities, mines and plantations of the Spanish Caribbean, Central America, Mexico, Colombia and Peru. Unlike what you might have expected few slaves exported via Cape Verde were actually going to Brazil but rather they were headed to the Hispanic Americas during this particular time period. Continue reading