Without wanting to rehash things this blog post and following ones will provide a quick recap of my final AncestryDNA survey findings for continental Africans. These results were obtained during 2013-2018 but I had not fully processed all the data up till now. Moving on now to Nigeria, with a special focus on how to distinguish Igbo, Yoruba and Hausa-Fulani lineage.
I first published my preliminary Nigerian survey findings on 22 September 2016 when I had only 15 Nigerian AncestryDNA results available for my analysis (see this overview). As my survey has been ongoing I have managed to collect a sample group which is now five times greater. Consisting of no less than 87 AncestryDNA results of Nigerian persons! Follow the link below for detailed analysis & new screenshots:
Table 1 (click to enlarge)
I discontinued this survey after Ancestry’s update in September 2018. Because in my opinion Ancestry’s new version of their ethnicity estimates regrettably has been a downgrade in regards to their African breakdown. In particular Ancestry’s update in 2018 has been disastrous for obtaining reasonable Nigerian DNA results. Generally speaking former “Nigeria” scores have sharply decreased and were replaced by inflated “Benin/Togo” and “Cameroon, Congo, Southern Bantu” scores. Just as a reminder this blog post is NOT dealing with those updated and usually rather misleading results! Instead read this blogseries.
My Nigerian AncestryDNA survey is actually the most extensive and oldest part of my African survey (2013-2018). Such results initially being very difficult to come by. However currently my sample size (n=87) is rather robust. Higher even than Ancestry’s own Nigerian sample size (n=67) during this period! And also crucially I have managed to gather plausible ethnic details for almost all of my Nigerian survey participants. Allowing for a finer detailed ethnic analysis of Nigerian genetics. Which is why I think these “old” results may still be useful and are not obsolete yet. Even when I did already establish in 2016 that “Nigeria” does not not cover the full extent of one’s Nigerian lineage.
I originally singled out three main implications/propositions for Afro-Diasporans. The first two ones have been discussed already in previous blogs. However not so the last one which I will revisit in this blog post. Furthermore I will briefly touch upon 23andme’s new “Nigerian” category and also how Ancestry might improve things in the near future.
- “Benin/Togo” also describes DNA from Nigeria (see this blog post as well)
- “Cameroon/Congo” can also be partially indicative of southeastern Nigerian lineage (usually to a minor degree though, see this blog post)
- Is it possible to determine the most likely ethnic source(s) of your Nigerian lineage?
Figure 2 (click to enlarge)
Can Nigerian ethnicity be genetically distinguished?
Map 1 (click to enlarge)
To get straight to the point: my answer to the question posed above would be a qualified yes when it comes to Nigerians themselves. I discuss this in greater detail on the main page if you scroll down to section 5. Where I also include references from major scientific papers suggesting genetic differentiation between various ethnic groups in Nigeria.
- Nigerian AncestryDNA results (scroll down to section 5)
- Detailed statistical overview of my Nigerian survey findings (incl. ranges etc.)
However for Afro-Diasporans this is an entirely different issue. Because of all the complexities involved.1 And generally speaking I do not think it is currently possible to obtain a “100% accurate” ethnic specification of your Nigerian ancestry. At least not by relying solely on admixture analysis, such as performed by AncestryDNA and other commercial DNA testing companies. And actually also not by testing your direct maternal or paternal line (see this article). However by conducting careful follow-up research (DNA matches, historical plausibility, genetic genealogy etc.) I do think you can increase the chances of learning more about the likely ethnic backgrounds of your Nigerian ancestors. See also the last sections of this blogpost.
Returning to my Nigerian AncestryDNA survey findings. The three ethnic groups I have selected for this research question (Hausa-Fulani, Yoruba and Igbo) are fairly distinctive. Because they are not neighbouring people but rather located in separate parts of the country (north, southwest and southeast), characterized by different (ancient) migration histories. Smaller ethnic groups from the same approximate region within Nigeria are likely to be greatly overlapping in genetics and hence much more difficult to distinguish (if at all).
As can be seen from table 1 above the main regional component for all three of my ethnic survey groups is “Nigeria”. There is some slight variation in the group averages. With my Igbo survey group standing out somewhat. However going by the actual range (min. & max.) within each group there is a great deal of overlap actually. Suggestive of much genetic similarity. However it turns out that often the secondary and/or additional regions do reveal useful clues about Nigerian ethnicity [for Nigerians themselves]. Most apparent when contrasting my Hausa-Fulani survey group with my Igbo and Yoruba survey groups. When wanting to detect differentiation between the Igbo & Yoruba things are less clear-cut. Because their additional regions are not unique to either (unlike the Hausa-Fulani). However by looking closely at the relative contributions one may still be able to find some finer distinctions.
Keep in mind that this following overview is not intended to be conclusive but rather indicative. Obviously these are generalizing tendencies based on my survey groups. Which are limited in sample size. As always individual variation is not to be denied and I am mostly going by group averages. All to be verified from table 1 above as well as this more detailed chart.
- Hausa-Fulani can clearly be distinguished from both Igbo & Yoruba because of their considerable “Senegal” scores (min. 15% – max. 35%). Which are practically unique to them (in this 3-way comparison). And in fact the same goes also for their “Africa North”, “Middle East” and “Southeastern Bantu” scores. To be explained in the first place as a reflection of the (partial) Fula origins of my Hausa-Fulani survey group. But also more ancient ancestral connections with Chadic/Nilo-Saharan speakers to the east.
- The Igbo and Yoruba, combined being southern Nigerians, can clearly be distinguished from the Hausa-Fulani because of their additional regions “Benin/Togo” and to a lesser degree “Cameroon/Congo”. Which are practically absent or negligible for my Hausa-Fulani survey group (on average). Merely speculating but perhaps to be explained by an ancient split-of between northern and southern Nigerians. Only afterwards giving rise to outgoing migrations, departing from southern Nigeria into Benin and beyond by the early ancestors of Gbe/Kwa speakers. And eastwards to Central & Southern Africa by Bantu speakers. Resulting in genetic similarity being picked up for southern Nigerians by way of so-called “Benin/Togo” and “Cameroon/Congo” proxies but not so for northern Nigerians.
- The Igbo can be distinguished from the Yoruba when going by more pronounced “Cameroon/Congo” scores and relatively less significant “Benin/Togo” scores. Even when in fact for both groups “Benin/Togo” is their main secondary component. But the Igbo have greater maximum scores for “Cameroon/Congo” (34%) while also the difference in median scores is statistically significant (12% vs. 3% for Yoruba). On the other hand among Yoruba it was much more frequently seen that “Benin/Togo” ended up in first place (7/18). And again the difference in group averages is quite big (36% versus 20% for Igbo). Presumably to be explained by geography in the first place. The Igbo being closer to Cameroon. While Yorubaland is bordering and even extending into Benin! But probably also an indication of different paths of ethnogenesis taken after leaving their assumed common place of origin somewhere around the confluence of the Niger and Benue rivers.
In conclusion my final Nigerian survey findings are suggesting that even between Yoruba and Igbos and even more so between southern Nigerians and the Hausa-Fulani a noticeable degree of genetic differentiation can indeed be observed. Not per se consistent on an individual basis but more apparent when based on group averages and approximate tendencies. Highlighting that regional admixture DOES matter!2 Correct interpretation might not always be easy. But in particular in the case of the Hausa-Fulani it is actually quite straightforward. More research is however needed to establish a firmer basis for determining the degree of genetic variation and how it may (roughly) correlate with ethnic background in Nigeria.
23andme better equipped to distinguish Nigerian lineage?
Map 2 (click to enlarge)
Ancestry’s “Nigeria” region was already underestimating genuine Nigerian lineage before its update. And even more so afterwards. Which is why in particular the issue of socalled “Benin/Togo” scores has been causing a great deal of confusion. It mislead many people into thinking their Nigerian ancestry was less than they anticipated. Currently you are much more likely to get a reasonable estimate of your Nigerian lineage on 23andme. Even if of course not 100% accurate 😉 Still going by actual Nigerian 23andme results the predictive accuracy of 23andme’s “Nigerian” region is quite impressive. Especially for southern Nigerians (around 90%).
I have started a new survey based on the newly updated African breakdown on 23andme among not only Africans but also various parts of the Afro-Diaspora. It is ongoing but you can see a preliminary overview by following the links below:
- African breakdown for Africans according to 23andme
- African breakdown for Afro-descendants according to 23&me (scaled to 100%)
- Nigerian 23andme results (after 2018/2019 update)
The number of my Nigerian sample group on 23andme is still quite minimal (n=25) however it is already quite telling how generally speaking some degree of genetic differentiation between Nigerian ethnic groups is also to be seen on 23andme. Most clearly again between Hausa-Fulani and southern Nigerians. But actually also between Yoruba and Igbo. Even when to a much more subtle degree. Going by their tendencies for additional minor “Ghanaian, Sierra Leonean and Liberian” as well as “Angolan and Congolese” scores.
It should be noted though that even when similarly labeled, ancestral categories on different DNA tests will not be perfect equivalents or measuring the same thing. It seems likely that Ancestry and 23andme are not using the same Nigerian reference samples for example. While there may also be some algorithm differences. Either way the “Nigeria” region on Ancestry (2013-2018) could indeed be informative (with correct interpretation). But it was also clearly understating things in many cases.3 A redesign of this region was certainly in need therefore. But regrettably Ancestry’s last update has only made things worse. Epitomizing the loss of focus in AncestryDNA’s updated African breakdown.
Focus on historical plausibility
Figure 2 (click to enlarge)
Table 2 (click to enlarge)
As already mentioned I firmly believe that in order to find out if you have any Igbo, Yoruba or also Hausa-Fulani lineage it is necessary to perform careful follow-up research and resist the temptation to jump to conclusions! One of the first things to take into consideration is historical plausibility. Ask your self the following questions:
- What is the relevant historical context?
- Are your earliest ancestral locations within the Americas associated with high levels of slave trade with either Bight of Benin or Bight of Biafra?
- What do the records say about most frequent ethnic groups being brought over to those locations?
As an approximate starting point (not meant to be conclusive in any way!) I have included above in table 2 an overview taken from the Slave Voyages Database. It is showing the relative importance of slave voyages originating from either Bight of Biafra (mostly but not exclusively indicative of Igbo lineage) or Bight of Benin (mostly but not exclusively indicative of Yoruba lineage as well as Hausa to a much lesser degree). As can be seen the proportional shares vary a lot for each particular destination within the Americas. For Bahia (Brazil) and Virginia (USA) things might be most straightforward. However for other destinations there are more complicating factors. Especially inter-colonial slave trade and domestic slave trade. For a full overview of disclaimers follow the link below. In order to zoom into more historical plausibility clues aligning with your particular background choose the relevant subsection (African Americans, Anglo Caribbeans, Brazilians etc.)
From my AncestryDNA survey findings (2013-2018) it can be established that the predictive accuracy of “Nigeria” certainly was not perfect. However generally speaking “Nigeria” scores DID correlate with actual Nigerian lineage. As also shown by my Afro-Diasporan findings. The highest “Nigeria” group averages being obtained by Anglo-Caribbeans and African Americans, very much in line with their prominent Bight of Biafra connection. But high scores actually also to be seen among Haitians and Hispanic Caribbeans as shown in figure 2 above. Again corresponding more or less with historically documented slave trade patterns.4
But looking at figure 2 above how can we then find out if for example the striking 62% “Nigeria amount for a Haitian is suggestive of either Yoruba, Igbo or Hausa lineage? Let alone any other Nigerian ethnic lineage! Can we indeed assume that the exceptional 56% “Nigeria” amounts reported for both a Jamaican and African American are mostly due to Igbo origins? Can we rule out any Hausa-Fulani lineage for the Dominican and Puerto Rican results (which do not include any “Senegal”)?
These are all very pertinent questions. But alas no easy answers! From my experience you do attain more insight though if you take into account that:
- “Nigeria” is not an exclusive marker for any given ethnic group (and neither is “Benin/Togo” or “Cameroon/Congo”!)
- Your “Nigeria” amount is likely to be traced back to numerous family lines and not a single one (unless you happen to have relatively recent Nigerian ancestry). Just as an example: a 25% score “Nigeria” for a typical Jamaican might be due to the genetic contributions of in between 15 to 50 different African-born ancestors. On average the DNA contribution of an ancestor living in the mid 1700’s could be around 0.5%-1.5%. See also:
- Realize that therefore your “Nigeria” score could include Nigerian ancestors from various ethnic groups, all at the same time. For example a 50% score “Nigeria” for a typical Haitian might possibly be traced back to 25 Yoruba ancestors, 20 Igbo ancestors and 5 Hausa ancestors (leaving out the possibility of other Nigerian ethnic lineage). Just to mention one possible combination out of many others depending on your individual family history.
Find your Nigerian matches
Table 3 (click to enlarge)
African DNA matches (autosomal) provide one of the most reliable avenues to Trace African Roots. Even more so when combined with well-interpreted admixture analysis. Fortunately an ever increasing number of Nigerians, or better yet Nigerian migrants and their children, are taking DNA tests. All of them potential DNA matches for Afro-descendants to get in touch with and learn more about your specific Nigerian lineage by finding your Nigerian DNA cousins! See also my tutorial below as well as my recently started service which will provide you with a African DNA Matches Report.
Despite the great potential to learn more I would still advocate a cautious approach though! Make a careful assessment of your Nigerian DNA matches, if you happen to have them. Taking into account shared segment size and the possibility of population matches (IBP) and false positives, so that only genuine IBD matches are left over. Ask yourself the following questions:
- Do you have any Nigerian matches?
- How many of them are likely to be Igbo, Yoruba, Hausa-Fulani etc.?
- Is any ethnic background predominant among them?
- Is the shared amount of DNA big (>10cM) or small (<7cM)?
- Are these matches also shared with your close family members?
- How do these matches fit in your overall African DNA matching patterns?
- How do your Nigerian matches correspond with your admixture results indicating Nigerian lineage?
Read the blog post below for much more details on how I performed such an analysis for 50 Cape Verdeans and their 437 African matches. I intend to do similar blog posts for other parts of the Afro-Diaspora eventually. And also among Nigerians themselves to establish which parts of the Afro-Diaspora appear to be most genetically linked to them, going by DNA matches.
Amazingly among the African DNA matches reported for my 50 Cape Verdean survey participants were also 45 most likely Hausa-Fulani matches from either Nigeria or Niger. In fact they were among the third most frequently reported group of African DNA matches! This rather peculiar outcome highlights how wide-ranging migrations & inter-ethnic unions from the past will impact your current day matching patterns. Because most likely Hausa-Fulani share Upper Guinean DNA with Cape Verdeans through mutual Fula ancestors. As direct slave trade between Nigeria (by way of the Bight of Benin) and Cape Verde is not recorded (AFAIK) and therefore highly unlikely.5
Not being aware of the proper context can create many pitfalls therefore. And I highly suspect that this finding among Cape Verdeans will also be valid for many people from other parts of the Afro-Diaspora. That is, in many cases a Hausa-Fulani match might be due to a shared ancestor from Upper Guinea and not from Nigeria. Documented slave trade from northern Nigeria being quite particular. More likely to have involved fully Hausa captives in fact rather than (mixed) Hausa-Fulani captives. And also mostly occurring in the final phase of Trans Atlantic Slave Trade. Given the history of the wars caused by the relatively late (1800’s) expansion of the Sokoto empire.
Lest I be misconstrued of course genuine ancestral connections between Hausa-Fulani and the Afro-Diaspora do exist! However quite likely in more intricate ways than you may imagine at first. As always my advise would be to seek additional clues to validate any possible ancestral ties with your Nigerian DNA matches.
Connecting Nigerians with the Afro-Diaspora and vice versa
Below is just a small overview of hopefully useful or inspiring resources to increase the odds of connecting with your Nigerian heritage. I intend to add to these resources eventually:
- The Igbo Connection for Virginia & Virginia-Descendants (Tracing African Roots, 2015)
- Igbo in the Atlantic World: African Origins and Diasporic Destinations (2016)
- Pinpointing the Origin of Family’s Igbo Ancestry with DNA (Roots Revealed, 2017)
- Using DNA Painter to Verify Igbo Origins (Roots Revealed, 2018)
- Youtube video of Igbo girl talking about her 23andme experience
- Yoruba Ethnogenesis from Within (2013)
- The Yoruba Diaspora in the Atlantic World (2005)
- Being and Becoming Hausa (2010, also available online)
- Nigerian startup to add African DNA to research as it builds world’s first pan-African biobank (2019)
Suggestions for improvement
“Create a clear distinction between Bight of Biafra origins and proper Central African roots. Given prevailing slave trade patterns this is a crucial issue for Afro-Diasporans!”
“[…] adding various Nigerian sample sets may also be explored. However a northern shift of this region does not seem recommendable given the mostly southern Nigerian roots of Afro-Diasporans!
“Create new African “migrations”, a.k.a. genetic communities. As far as I am aware currently there are only two “migrations” in place for Africans. […] Especially for Nigerians and Ghanaians I would imagine something could already be set up. Even more so when appropriate academic samples can be added. “
The quotes above are taken from my previous blog post from June 2018:
Unfortunately hardly any of these suggestions were taken up by Ancestry when they did their last update in September 2018… However it seems that a new update may be upcoming already (see this link). Although I am not sure if this will also affect the African breakdown. Either way Ancestry has announced they aim to expand their African Reference Panel (see this blog post). So I might as well give it another shot 😉 I still stand by my statements quoted above.
In particular I believe that when wanting to get more solid ground on the question of either Igbo, Yoruba or Hausa-Fulani origins for Afro-descendants it will be very helpful if Ancestry were to create Nigerian “migrations”. However not ethnically labeled, as this will often be misleading! But rather something along geographical lines like distinguishing a southwestern Nigerian “migration” from a southeastern Nigerian “migration” as well as a northern Nigerian “migration”. After all if a country as small as Ireland has no less than 92 (!!!) distinctive sub-regions on Ancestry (see this article) why not further specify Nigeria, the most populous country of Africa and also among the principal countries of provenance for Afro-Diasporans!
Obviously AncestryDNA’s regional breakdown (2013-2018) was rather basic and had several flaws. I like to underline though that my Nigerian AncestryDNA survey (2013-2018) did produce several potentially insightful findings. Not only for improving the interpretation of the results of Afro-Diasporans. But also for Nigerians themselves it may lead to better understanding of the understudied migration history within the African continent. Both relatively recent (last 500 years or so) and more ancient. I have had many stimulating discussions with Nigerians who did a DNA test over the years. Unlike what some people might assume many Africans themselves also take a great interest in these matters.
Then again my intention is not only to look backwards but also forwards! In particular I believe that my survey findings may provide a helpful baseline to compare with 23andme’s newly updated African breakdown (see this overview). As well as functioning as a benchmark for Ancestry’s upcoming update, which hopefully this time will lead to improvement!
Over all I would say that my Nigerian survey findings are pretty much reinforcing the main message I have been trying to get across from day 1: the labeling of ancestral categories in DNA testing is often not be taken too literally. However this does not mean you cannot derive a great deal of informational value from your socalled ethnicity estimates! Proper interpretation is a precondition. And it has been my experience that being aware of the DNA results of native Nigerians certainly helps in this regard. Even more so when also taking into account your African DNA matches, relevant historical context, (advanced) genetic genealogy and other means of follow-up research.
I am aware that ethnicity can be a sensitive topic. My motivation to research these so-called Ethnicity Estimates is purely scholarly. It stems from a deep fascination with Nigeria’s eminent place within West Africa’s ancient population migrations, as well as its many connections with the Afro-Diaspora. I do not condone the misuse of my research for identity politics! I am in full support of democratizing knowledge. However when parts of my work are being copied I do expect that a proper referral to my blog and the additional context it provides will be made.
Please also keep in mind that DNA testing can be very educational and may have many positive effects. However in some cases it may also be abused by people with bad intentions.
- Can DNA Ancestry Testing Make You More Racist/Tribalistic? (Scientific American)
1) Understandably many people desire to have the most specific degree of resolution when searching for their African roots. They want to be able to pinpoint their exact ethnic origins and preferably also know the exact location of their ancestral village. In a way following in the footsteps of the still very influential ROOTS author Alex Haley. Unfortunately these are rather unrealistic expectations to have in regards to DNA testing (at least in regards to admixture analysis.). Not only given current scientific possibilities. But also because such expectations rest on widely spread misconceptions about ethnicity, genetics, genealogy as well as Afro-Diasporan history. Too often people ignore how the melting pot concept is really nothing new but has always existed, also in Africa!
Generally speaking the African regions on AncestryDNA have become more generic and less specific after the update in 2018. As a consequence the country name labeling has become even more misleading when taken at face value. On the other hand ancestral categories referring to ethnic groups might be just as deceptive or even more so! As many people will again tend to take them too literally. Underestimating not only the sheer number of ethnic groups existing in Africa (thousands!) but also the complexity of interplay between fluid ethnicity, overlapping genetics and shifting political borders. The same goes for precolonial African kingdoms which again were not static entities. But instead very often ended up being multi-ethnic after expansion and assimilation of neighbouring peoples.
Either way for such an endeavour to succeed one should preferably use ancient samples from relevant time periods and locations. Rather than modernday African samples whose pedigree may very well include many inter-ethnic unions within the last 200-300 years or so. Of course the intermingling of African ethnic lineage continued even more so within the Afro-Diaspora. Again during several centuries but this time also involving ethnic groups geographically far removed from each other. All of which resulting in a very intricate mix which remains tricky to disentangle.
Personally I prefer ancestral regions which are referring to either non-political geography or meta-ethnic/linguistic groups. Such as Atlantic, Mande, Kru, Akan, Gbe etc. (see this page). But I fear that inherently there will always be some degree of blurriness involved and exact delineation might be impossible to achieve in many cases. Instead of generating false hope it might be a more honest approach to go by the motto of “don’t be more specific than your data supports”. Previous blog posts of mine dealing with this topic:
- “What tribe am I?”
- Fictional Family Tree incl. African Born Ancestors
- Is it possible to pinpoint a plausible ethnic origin for one’s African bloodline?
- What can be learnt from AncestryDNA when trying to trace African ancestry?
2) According to some people only continental admixture is to be taken seriously in DNA testing. Sub-continental admixture, a.k.a. ethnicity estimates, a.k.a. regional admixture only being fit for entertainment purposes. I myself have never taken this stance. Preferring to judge each case on its own merits. Attempting to maximize informational value despite imperfections and avoiding source snobbery. Which is why I have conducted my AncestryDNA surveys among Africans and Afro-descendants in the past. Applying an additional macro-regional framework for extra insight (Upper Guinea, Lower Guinea, Central/Southeast Africa).
Basically combining interrelated & neighbouring genetic regions in order to allow certain regional patterns to show up more clearly. This turned out to be particularly helpful when wanting to explore any rough correlation between aggregated AncestryDNA results for Afro-Diasporans and slave trade patterns. Which I indeed established for the most part (see this post for a summary).
In the context of my Nigerian survey it seems that relatively remote regions such as “Senegal” may indeed be more distinctive than neighbouring regions such as “Benin/Togo and “Cameroon/Congo”. Which naturally show much more genetic overlap to “Nigeria”. But either way with correct interpretation and awareness of relevant (pre) history I hope to have demonstrated that many insightful aspects may be derived from Nigerian AncestryDNA results.
3) To be fair Ancestry’s African breakdown during 2013-2018 was far better in my opinion than 23andme’s African breakdown during that same period (before their update in 2019). Unlike any of its commercial competitors AncestryDNA was able to distinguish no less than 5 different West African regions. In addition it also did a reasonable job at separating West African DNA from Central/Southern African DNA (“Cameroon/Congo” and “Southeastern Bantu”). Which is essential for getting a full scope perspective on the origins of the Afro-Diaspora. See also:
- “West Africa” category on 23andme (2013-2018)
- “Central & South African” category on 23andme (2013-2018)
4) See this post below for a summary of how my Afro-Diasporan findings (2013-2018) more or less fall in line with historical plausibility.
Also from this overview below it can be seen that “Nigeria” is clearly culminating for Nigerians, as it should. But otherwise the ranking is roughly corresponding with expectations based on historical slave trade patterns.
*** (click to enlarge)
5) At first sight this high number of presumably Hausa-Fulani matches (45) from either northern Nigeria or Niger seems pretty astonishing. And even perplexing when one is not aware of the complete context. After all Nigeria is quite far removed from Cape Verde. While practically no documented records exist of slave trade between both places. Still these Hausa-Fulani matches are third in place after Fula & North African matches in my survey and more numerous than for example Senegalese matches (see this overview)!
I am pretty sure that these Hausa-Fulani matches are ultimately caused by way of shared Upper Guinean DNA. As my Nigerian AncestryDNA survey findings show that Hausa-Fulani all consistently showed a considerable “Senegal” score (prior to the update) in addition of usually also primary “Nigeria” scores. I have also seen the DNA matches being reported for two Hausa-Fulani. And unsurprisingly they often tend to be closely related with Fula DNA testers from Upper Guinea. However only a chromosome browser might confirm I suppose or perhaps also triangulation with Fula matches. See these links for actual Hausa-Fulani results:
A typical ancestral scenario might involve one Fula man residing in for example Senegambia or Guinea in the mid 1700’s. Due to local warfare he ends up being deported as a captive to Cape Verde. His brother however decides to migrate eastwards as many Fula people had been doing then for quite some time already. He finally settles down in northern Nigeria (Sokoto empire). Where his descendants eventually intermingled with the native Hausa people. Resulting in a present-day DNA match with a Cape Verdean!