Igbo, Yoruba or Hausa-Fulani? Nigerian AncestryDNA results 2013-2018

Without wanting to rehash things this blog post and following ones will provide a quick recap of my final AncestryDNA survey findings for continental Africans. These results were obtained during 2013-2018 but I had not fully processed all the data up till now. Moving on now to Nigeria, with a special focus on how to distinguish Igbo, Yoruba and Hausa-Fulani lineage.

I first published my preliminary Nigerian survey findings on 22 September 2016 when I had only 15 Nigerian AncestryDNA results available for my analysis (see this overview). As my survey has been ongoing I have managed to collect a sample group which is now five times greater. Consisting of no less than 87 AncestryDNA results of Nigerian persons! Follow the link below for detailed analysis & new screenshots:

Table 1 (click to enlarge)

naija comparison

For all three listed ethnic groups “Nigeria” is the primary regional component. However more differentiation is detectable when zooming into secondary regions. In particular “Senegal” for the Hausa-Fulani clearly stands out when compared with the rest. Less clear-cut distinction between Igbo & Yoruba. However when taking into account relative proportional shares for “Benin/Togo” and “Cameroon/Congo” it is still already detectable.

***

I discontinued this survey after Ancestry’s update in September 2018. Because in my opinion Ancestry’s new version of their ethnicity estimates regrettably has been a downgrade in regards to their African breakdown. In particular Ancestry’s update in 2018 has been disastrous for obtaining reasonable Nigerian DNA results. Generally speaking former “Nigeria” scores have sharply decreased and were replaced by inflated “Benin/Togo” and “Cameroon, Congo, Southern Bantu” scores. Just as a reminder this blog post is NOT dealing with those updated and usually rather misleading results! Instead read this blogseries.

My Nigerian AncestryDNA survey is actually the most extensive and oldest part of my African survey (2013-2018). Such results initially being very difficult to come by. However currently my sample size (n=87) is rather robust. Higher even than Ancestry’s own Nigerian sample size (n=67) during this period! And also crucially I have managed to gather plausible ethnic details for almost all of my Nigerian survey participants. Allowing for a finer detailed ethnic analysis of Nigerian genetics. Which is why I think these “old” results may still be useful and are not obsolete yet. Even when I did already establish in 2016 that “Nigeria” does not not cover the full extent of one’s Nigerian lineage.

I originally singled out three main implications/propositions for Afro-Diasporans. The first two ones have been discussed already in previous blogs. However not so the last one which I will revisit in this blog post. Furthermore I will briefly touch upon 23andme’s new “Nigerian” category and also how Ancestry might improve things in the near future.

  1. “Benin/Togo” also describes DNA from Nigeria (see this blog post as well)
  2. “Cameroon/Congo” can also be partially indicative of southeastern Nigerian lineage (usually to a minor degree though, see this blog post)
  3. Is it possible to determine the most likely ethnic source(s) of your Nigerian lineage?

Figure 2 (click to enlarge)

Compil NG 3x

All three results show a predominant “Nigeria” amount. Indicative of a high degree of shared origins for Nigerians, regardless of ethnic background. Then again there is a major distinction between Hausa-Fulani and southern Nigerian results because of in particular the additional “Senegal” score and absence of “Benin/Togo” & “Cameroon/Congo”. Overlap between Yoruba and Igbo results is much greater but still going by proportional shares for in particular “Cameroon/Congo” still some minor differentiation can be detected.

***

Can Nigerian ethnicity be genetically distinguished?

Map 1 (click to enlarge)

Nigeria_ethnic_v3

Nigeria is said to have more than 250 ethnic groups and even more languages so obviously it is very diverse! Still a lot depends on definition. And even when the population shares are only estimates the Hausa-Fulani, Yoruba and Igbo are clearly the main groups. Combined possibly accounting for more than half of the Nigerian population. See also this section for more maps (incl. very detailed historical maps of the Benin, Oyo and Sokoto empires as well as the Bight of Biafra hinterland in the 1800’s).

***

To get straight to the point: my answer to the question posed above would be a qualified yes when it comes to Nigerians themselves. I discuss this in greater detail on the main page if you scroll down to section 5. Where I also include references from major scientific papers suggesting genetic differentiation between various ethnic groups in Nigeria.

However for Afro-Diasporans this is an entirely different issue. Because of all the complexities involved.1 And generally speaking I do not think it is currently possible to obtain a “100% accurate” ethnic specification of your Nigerian ancestry. At least not by relying solely on admixture analysis, such as performed by AncestryDNA and other commercial DNA testing companies. And actually also not by testing your direct maternal or paternal line (see this article). However by conducting careful follow-up research (DNA matches, historical plausibility, genetic genealogy etc.) I do think you can increase the chances of learning more about the likely ethnic backgrounds of your Nigerian ancestors. See also the last sections of this blogpost.

Returning to my Nigerian AncestryDNA survey findings. The three ethnic groups I have selected for this research question (Hausa-Fulani, Yoruba and Igbo) are fairly distinctive. Because they are not neighbouring people but rather located in separate parts of the country (north, southwest and southeast), characterized by different (ancient) migration histories. Smaller ethnic groups from the same approximate region within Nigeria are likely to be greatly overlapping in genetics and hence much more difficult to distinguish (if at all).

As can be seen from table 1 above the main regional component for all three of my ethnic survey groups is “Nigeria”. There is some slight variation in the group averages. With my Igbo survey group standing out somewhat. However going by the actual range (min. & max.) within each group there is a great deal of overlap actually. Suggestive of much genetic similarity. However it turns out that often the secondary and/or additional regions do reveal useful clues about Nigerian ethnicity [for Nigerians themselves]. Most apparent when contrasting my Hausa-Fulani survey group with my Igbo and Yoruba survey groups. When wanting to detect differentiation between the Igbo & Yoruba things are less clear-cut. Because their additional regions are not unique to either (unlike the Hausa-Fulani). However by looking closely at the relative contributions one may still be able to find some finer distinctions.

Keep in mind that this following overview is not intended to be conclusive but rather indicative. Obviously these are generalizing tendencies based on my survey groups. Which are limited in sample size. As always individual variation is not to be denied and I am mostly going by group averages. All to be verified from table 1 above as well as this more detailed chart.

  • Hausa-Fulani can clearly be distinguished from both Igbo & Yoruba because of their considerable “Senegal” scores (min. 15% – max. 35%). Which are practically unique to them (in this 3-way comparison). And in fact the same goes also for their “Africa North”,  “Middle East” and “Southeastern Bantu” scores. To be explained in the first place as a reflection of the (partial) Fula origins of my Hausa-Fulani survey group. But also more ancient ancestral connections with Chadic/Nilo-Saharan speakers to the east.
  • The Igbo and Yoruba, combined being southern Nigerians, can clearly be distinguished from the Hausa-Fulani because of their additional regions “Benin/Togo” and to a lesser degree “Cameroon/Congo”. Which are practically absent or negligible for my Hausa-Fulani survey group (on average). Merely speculating but perhaps to be explained by an ancient split-of between northern and southern Nigerians. Only afterwards giving rise to outgoing migrations, departing from southern Nigeria into Benin and beyond by the early ancestors of Gbe/Kwa speakers. And eastwards to Central & Southern Africa by Bantu speakers. Resulting in genetic similarity being picked up for southern Nigerians by way of so-called “Benin/Togo” and “Cameroon/Congo” proxies but not so for northern Nigerians.
  • The Igbo can be distinguished from the Yoruba when going by more pronounced “Cameroon/Congo” scores and relatively less significant “Benin/Togo” scores. Even when in fact for both groups “Benin/Togo” is their main secondary component. But the Igbo have greater maximum scores for “Cameroon/Congo” (34%) while also the difference in median scores is statistically significant (12% vs. 3% for Yoruba). On the other hand among Yoruba it was much more frequently seen that “Benin/Togo” ended up in first place (7/18). And again the difference in group averages is quite big (36% versus 20% for Igbo). Presumably to be explained by geography in the first place. The Igbo being closer to Cameroon. While Yorubaland is bordering and even extending into Benin! But probably also an indication of different paths of ethnogenesis taken after leaving their assumed common place of origin somewhere around the confluence of the Niger and Benue rivers.

In conclusion my final Nigerian survey findings are suggesting that even between Yoruba and Igbos and even more so between southern Nigerians and the Hausa-Fulani a noticeable degree of genetic differentiation can indeed be observed. Not per se consistent on an individual basis but more apparent when based on group averages and approximate tendencies. Highlighting that regional admixture DOES matter!Correct interpretation might not always be easy. But in particular in the case of the Hausa-Fulani it is actually quite straightforward. More research is however needed to establish a firmer basis for determining the degree of genetic variation and how it may (roughly) correlate with ethnic background in Nigeria.

 

23andme better equipped to distinguish Nigerian lineage?

Map 2 (click to enlarge)

NIGERIAN

This map shows the group averages of “Nigerian” among my African 23andme survey participants. Impressive coverage of southern Nigerian DNA for Nigerians themselves. Much better than on AncestryDNA! However considerable overlap also with DNA found to the west and the east of Nigeria. Native Ghanaians and Cameroonians without any recent Nigerian lineage will still often show “Nigeria” scores in excess of 30%. Ironically reversing the current situation on Ancestry. Not a perfect outcome therefore. But it is probably preferable for Afro-Diasporans to have their Nigerian lineage slightly overestimated rather than it being practically erased on Ancestry. Only to be replaced by confusingly mislabeled “Benin/Togo” and “Cameroon, Congo and Southern Bantu” regions.

***

Ancestry’s “Nigeria” region was already underestimating genuine Nigerian lineage before its update. And even more so afterwards. Which is why in particular the issue of socalled “Benin/Togo” scores has been causing a great deal of confusion. It mislead many people into thinking their Nigerian ancestry was less than they anticipated. Currently you are much more likely to get a reasonable estimate of your Nigerian lineage on 23andme. Even if of course not 100% accurate 😉 Still going by actual Nigerian 23andme results the predictive accuracy of 23andme’s “Nigerian” region is quite impressive. Especially for southern Nigerians (around 90%).

I have started a new survey based on the newly updated African breakdown on 23andme among not only Africans but also various parts of the Afro-Diaspora. It is ongoing but you can see a preliminary overview by following the links below:

The number of my Nigerian sample group on 23andme is still quite minimal (n=25) however it is already quite telling how generally speaking some degree of genetic differentiation between Nigerian ethnic groups is also to be seen on  23andme. Most clearly again between Hausa-Fulani and southern Nigerians. But actually also between Yoruba and Igbo. Even when to a much more subtle degree. Going by their tendencies for additional minor “Ghanaian, Sierra Leonean and Liberian” as well as “Angolan and Congolese” scores.

It should be noted though that even when similarly labeled, ancestral categories on different DNA tests will not be perfect equivalents or measuring the same thing. It seems likely that Ancestry and 23andme are not using the same Nigerian reference samples for example. While there may also be some algorithm differences.  Either way the “Nigeria” region on Ancestry (2013-2018) could indeed be informative (with correct interpretation). But it was also clearly understating things in many cases.3 A redesign of this region was certainly in need therefore. But regrettably Ancestry’s last update has only made things worse. Epitomizing the loss of focus in AncestryDNA’s updated African breakdown.

 

Focus on historical plausibility

Figure 2 (click to enlarge)

Compil Diaspora 6x

This selection features some of the highest “Nigeria” amounts I have observed in my AncestryDNA survey (2013-2018). Among both Nigerians and Afro-Diasporans. Highly indicative of substantial Nigerian lineage. But the regional score of “Nigeria” does NOT specify ethnic details. Nigerians will usually know of course (even when going back several generations they might also be more multi-ethnic than they were aware of). However for Afro-Diasporans follow-up research is required (DNA matches, historical plausibility, genetic genealogy etc.). The “Nigeria” score being reported for an African American might very well imply a different predominant Nigerian ethnic lineage than for a Haitian. Although in both cases actually a mixture of various Nigerian ethnic groups seems likely.

***

Table 2 (click to enlarge)

TAST percentages

This chart is showing the proportional shares of Trans Atlantic slave voyages embarking from either southwest Nigeria or southeast Nigeria (resp. Bight of Benin & Bight of Biafra, see this page for slave trade maps). All other embarkation regions being left out of the equation. Especially for Bahia & Virginia highly indicative of the chances of having either Yoruba or Igbo lineage. For other parts of the Diaspora things are more complicated though, due to also inter-colonial slave voyages (not shown in this chart!) as well as domestic slave trade. (Hispaniola=Dominican Republic; Saint Domingue=Haiti); Source: TAST Database (2019). Follow this link for underlying numbers.

***

As already mentioned I firmly believe that in order to find out if you have any Igbo, Yoruba or also Hausa-Fulani lineage it is necessary to perform careful follow-up research and resist the temptation to jump to conclusions! One of the first things to take into consideration is historical plausibility. Ask your self the following questions:

  1. What is the relevant historical context?
  2. Are your earliest ancestral locations within the Americas associated with high levels of slave trade with either Bight of Benin or Bight of Biafra?
  3. What do the records say about most frequent ethnic groups being brought over to those locations?

As an approximate starting point (not meant to be conclusive in any way!) I have included above in table 2 an overview taken from the Slave Voyages Database. It is showing the relative importance of slave voyages originating from either Bight of Biafra (mostly but not exclusively indicative of Igbo lineage) or Bight of Benin (mostly but not exclusively indicative of Yoruba lineage as well as Hausa to a much lesser degree). As can be seen the proportional shares vary a lot for each particular destination within the Americas. For Bahia (Brazil) and Virginia (USA) things might be most straightforward. However for other destinations there are more complicating factors. Especially inter-colonial slave trade and domestic slave trade. For a full overview of disclaimers follow the link below. In order to zoom into more historical plausibility clues aligning with your particular background choose the relevant subsection (African Americans, Anglo Caribbeans, Brazilians etc.)

From my AncestryDNA survey findings (2013-2018) it can be established that the predictive accuracy of “Nigeria” certainly was not perfect. However generally speaking “Nigeria” scores DID correlate with actual Nigerian lineage. As also shown by my Afro-Diasporan findings. The highest “Nigeria” group averages being obtained by Anglo-Caribbeans and African Americans, very much in line with their prominent Bight of Biafra connection. But high scores actually also to be seen among Haitians and Hispanic Caribbeans as shown in figure 2 above. Again corresponding more or less with historically documented slave trade patterns.

But looking at figure 2 above how can we then find out if for example the striking 62% “Nigeria amount for a Haitian is suggestive of either Yoruba, Igbo or Hausa lineage? Let alone any other Nigerian ethnic lineage! Can we indeed assume that the exceptional 56% “Nigeria” amounts reported for both a Jamaican and African American are mostly due to Igbo origins? Can we rule out any Hausa-Fulani lineage for the Dominican and Puerto Rican results (which do not include any “Senegal”)?

These are all very pertinent questions. But alas no easy answers! From my experience you do attain more insight though if you take into account that:

  • “Nigeria” is not an exclusive marker for any given ethnic group (and neither is “Benin/Togo” or “Cameroon/Congo”!)
  • Your “Nigeria” amount is likely to be traced back to numerous family lines and not a single one (unless you happen to have relatively recent Nigerian ancestry). Just as an example: a 25% score “Nigeria” for a typical Jamaican might be due to the genetic contributions of in between 15 to 50 different African-born ancestors. On average the DNA contribution of an ancestor living in the mid 1700’s could be around 0.5%-1.5%. See also:
  • Realize that therefore your “Nigeria” score could include Nigerian ancestors from various ethnic groups, all at the same time. For example a 50% score “Nigeria” for a typical Haitian might possibly be traced back to 25 Yoruba ancestors, 20 Igbo ancestors and 5 Hausa ancestors (leaving out the possibility of other Nigerian ethnic lineage). Just to mention one possible combination out of many others depending on your individual family history.

 

Find your Nigerian matches

***

Table 3 (click to enlarge)

DNA matches1

This is the first page of an African DNA Matches Report I made for a person of fully Jamaican descent. It is probably exceptional because of the extraordinarily high number of possibly Igbo matches I was able to find. But this overview is highly illustrative of the potential of how your Nigerian DNA matching patterns may enable further ethnic specification of your Nigerian lineage. I have left out name details for privacy reasons. While the regional summaries are reflecting Ancestry’s flawed update in September 2018. For more details see my African DNA Matches service.

***

African DNA matches (autosomal) provide one of the most reliable avenues to Trace African RootsEven more so when combined with well-interpreted admixture analysis. Fortunately an ever increasing number of Nigerians, or better yet Nigerian migrants and their children, are taking DNA tests. All of them potential DNA matches for Afro-descendants to get in touch with and learn more about your specific Nigerian lineage by finding your Nigerian DNA cousins! See also my tutorial below as well as my recently started service which will provide you with a African DNA Matches Report.

Despite the great potential to learn more I would still advocate a cautious approach though! Make a careful assessment of your Nigerian DNA matches, if you happen to have them. Taking into account shared segment size and the possibility of population matches (IBP) and false positives, so that only genuine IBD matches are left over. Ask yourself the following questions:

  1. Do you have any Nigerian matches?
  2. How many of them are likely to be Igbo, Yoruba, Hausa-Fulani etc.?
  3. Is any ethnic background predominant among them?
  4. Is the shared amount of DNA big (>10cM) or small (<7cM)?
  5. Are these matches also shared with your close family members?
  6. How do these matches fit in your overall African DNA matching patterns?
  7. How do your Nigerian matches correspond with your admixture results indicating Nigerian lineage?

Read the blog post below for much more details on how I performed such an analysis for 50 Cape Verdeans and their 437 African matches. I intend to do similar blog posts for other parts of the Afro-Diaspora eventually. And also among Nigerians themselves to establish which parts of the Afro-Diaspora appear to be most genetically linked to them, going by DNA matches.

Amazingly among the African DNA matches reported for my 50 Cape Verdean survey participants were also 45 most likely Hausa-Fulani matches from either Nigeria or Niger. In fact they were among the third most frequently reported group of African DNA matches! This rather peculiar outcome highlights how wide-ranging migrations & inter-ethnic unions from the past will impact your current day matching patterns. Because most likely Hausa-Fulani share Upper Guinean DNA with Cape Verdeans through mutual Fula ancestors. As direct slave trade between Nigeria (by way of the Bight of Benin) and Cape Verde is not recorded (AFAIK) and therefore highly unlikely.5

Not being aware of the proper context can create many pitfalls therefore. And I highly suspect that this finding among Cape Verdeans will also be valid for many people from other parts of the Afro-Diaspora. That is, in many cases a Hausa-Fulani match might be due to a shared ancestor from Upper Guinea and not from Nigeria. Documented slave trade from northern Nigeria being quite particular. More likely to have involved fully Hausa captives in fact rather than (mixed) Hausa-Fulani captives. And also mostly occurring in the final phase of Trans Atlantic Slave Trade. Given the history of the wars caused by the relatively late (1800’s) expansion of the Sokoto empire.

Lest I be misconstrued of course genuine ancestral connections between Hausa-Fulani and the Afro-Diaspora do exist! However quite likely in more intricate ways than you may imagine at first. As always my advise would be to seek additional clues to validate any possible ancestral ties with your Nigerian DNA matches.

 

Connecting Nigerians with the Afro-Diaspora and vice versa

Below is just a small overview of hopefully useful or inspiring resources to increase the odds of connecting with your Nigerian heritage. I intend to add to these resources eventually:

 

Suggestions for improvement

___________________

Create a clear distinction between Bight of Biafra origins and proper Central African roots. Given prevailing slave trade patterns this is a crucial issue for Afro-Diasporans!”

“[…] adding various Nigerian sample sets may also be explored. However a northern shift of this region does not seem recommendable given the mostly southern Nigerian roots of Afro-Diasporans!

Create new African “migrations”, a.k.a. genetic communities.  As far as I am aware currently there are only two “migrations” in place for Africans. […] Especially for Nigerians and Ghanaians I would imagine something could already be set up. Even more so when appropriate academic samples can be added.

____________________

The quotes above are taken from my previous blog post from June 2018:

Unfortunately hardly any of these suggestions were taken up by Ancestry when they did their last update in September 2018… However it seems that a new update may be upcoming already (see this link). Although I am not sure if this will also affect the African breakdown. Either way Ancestry has announced they aim to expand their African Reference Panel (see this blog post). So I might as well give it another shot 😉 I still stand by my statements quoted above.

In particular I believe that when wanting to get more solid ground on the question of either Igbo, Yoruba or Hausa-Fulani origins for Afro-descendants it will be very helpful if Ancestry were to create Nigerian “migrations”. However not ethnically labeled, as this will often be misleading! But rather something along geographical lines like distinguishing a southwestern Nigerian “migration” from a southeastern Nigerian “migration” as well as a northern Nigerian “migration”.  After all if a country as small as Ireland has no less than 92 (!!!) distinctive sub-regions on Ancestry (see this article) why not further specify Nigeria, the most populous country of Africa and also among the principal countries of provenance for Afro-Diasporans!

Obviously AncestryDNA’s regional breakdown (2013-2018) was rather basic and had several flaws. I like to underline though that my Nigerian AncestryDNA survey (2013-2018) did produce several potentially insightful findings. Not only for improving the interpretation of the results of Afro-Diasporans. But also for Nigerians themselves it may lead to better understanding of the understudied migration history within the African continent. Both relatively recent (last 500 years or so) and more ancient. I have had many stimulating discussions with Nigerians who did a DNA test over the years. Unlike what some people might assume many Africans themselves also take a great interest in these matters.

Then again my intention is not only to look backwards but also forwards! In particular I believe that my survey findings may provide a helpful baseline to compare with 23andme’s newly updated African breakdown (see this overview). As well as functioning as a benchmark for Ancestry’s upcoming update, which hopefully this time will lead to improvement!

Over all I would say that my Nigerian survey findings are pretty much reinforcing the main message I have been trying to get across from day 1: the labeling of ancestral categories in DNA testing is often not be taken too literally. However this does not mean you cannot derive a great deal of informational value from your socalled ethnicity estimates! Proper interpretation is a precondition. And it has been my experience that being aware of the DNA results of native Nigerians certainly helps in this regard. Even more so when also taking into account your African DNA matches, relevant historical context, (advanced) genetic genealogy and other means of follow-up research.

Disclaimer:

I am aware that ethnicity can be a sensitive topic. My motivation to research these so-called Ethnicity Estimates is purely scholarly. It stems from a deep fascination with Nigeria’s eminent place within West Africa’s ancient population migrations, as well as its many connections with the Afro-Diaspora. I do not condone the misuse of my research for identity politics! I am in full support of democratizing knowledge. However when parts of my work are being copied I do expect that a proper referral to my blog and the additional context it provides will be made.

Please also keep in mind that DNA testing can be very educational and may have many positive effects. However in some cases it may also be abused by people with bad intentions.

___________________________________________________________________________

Notes

1) Understandably many people desire to have the most specific degree of resolution when searching for their African roots. They want to be able to pinpoint their exact ethnic origins and preferably also know the exact location of their ancestral village. In a way following in the footsteps of the still very influential ROOTS author Alex Haley. Unfortunately these are rather unrealistic expectations to have in regards to DNA testing (at least in regards to admixture analysis.). Not only given current scientific possibilities. But also because such expectations rest on widely spread misconceptions about ethnicity, genetics, genealogy as well as Afro-Diasporan history. Too often people ignore how the melting pot concept is really nothing new but has always existed, also in Africa!

Generally speaking the African regions on AncestryDNA have become more generic and less specific after the update in 2018. As a consequence the country name labeling has become even more misleading when taken at face value. On the other hand ancestral categories referring to ethnic groups might be just as deceptive or even more so! As many people will again tend to take them too literally. Underestimating not only the sheer number of ethnic groups existing in Africa (thousands!) but also the complexity of interplay between fluid ethnicity, overlapping genetics and shifting political borders. The same goes for precolonial African kingdoms which again were not static entities. But instead very often ended up being multi-ethnic after expansion and assimilation of neighbouring peoples.

Either way for such an endeavour to succeed one should preferably use ancient samples from relevant time periods and locations. Rather than modernday African samples whose pedigree may very well include many inter-ethnic unions within the last 200-300 years or so. Of course the intermingling of African ethnic lineage continued even more so within the Afro-Diaspora. Again during several centuries but this time also involving ethnic groups geographically far removed from each other. All of which resulting in a very intricate mix which remains tricky to disentangle.

Personally I prefer ancestral regions which are referring to either non-political geography or meta-ethnic/linguistic groups. Such as Atlantic, Mande, Kru, Akan, Gbe etc. (see this page). But I fear that inherently there will always be some degree of blurriness involved and exact delineation might be impossible to achieve in many cases. Instead of generating false hope it might be a more honest approach to go by the motto of “don’t be more specific than your data supports”. Previous blog posts of mine dealing with this topic:

2) According to some people only continental admixture is to be taken seriously in DNA testing. Sub-continental admixture, a.k.a. ethnicity estimates, a.k.a. regional admixture only being fit for entertainment purposes. I myself have never taken this stance. Preferring to judge each case on its own merits. Attempting to maximize informational value despite imperfections and avoiding source snobbery. Which is why I have conducted my AncestryDNA surveys among Africans and Afro-descendants in the past. Applying an additional macro-regional framework for extra insight (Upper GuineaLower GuineaCentral/Southeast Africa).

Basically combining interrelated & neighbouring genetic regions in order to allow certain regional patterns to show up more clearly. This turned out to be particularly helpful when wanting to explore any rough correlation between aggregated AncestryDNA results for Afro-Diasporans and slave trade patterns. Which I indeed established for the most part (see this post for a summary).

In the context of my Nigerian survey it seems that relatively remote regions such as “Senegal” may indeed be more distinctive than neighbouring regions such as “Benin/Togo and “Cameroon/Congo”. Which naturally show much more genetic overlap to “Nigeria”. But either way with correct interpretation and awareness of relevant (pre) history I hope to have demonstrated that many insightful aspects may be derived from Nigerian AncestryDNA results.

3To be fair Ancestry’s African breakdown during 2013-2018 was far better in my opinion than 23andme’s African breakdown during that same period (before their update in 2019). Unlike any of its commercial competitors AncestryDNA was able to distinguish no less than 5 different West African regions. In addition it also did a reasonable job at separating West African DNA from Central/Southern African DNA (“Cameroon/Congo” and “Southeastern Bantu”). Which is essential for getting a full scope perspective on the origins of the Afro-Diaspora. See also:

4) See this post below for a summary of how my Afro-Diasporan findings (2013-2018) more or less fall in line with historical plausibility.

Also from this overview below it can be seen that “Nigeria” is clearly culminating for Nigerians, as it should. But otherwise the ranking is roughly corresponding with expectations based on historical slave trade patterns.

*** (click to enlarge)

Diasp comparison

5At first sight this high number of presumably  Hausa-Fulani matches (45) from either northern Nigeria or Niger seems pretty astonishing. And even perplexing when one is not aware of the complete context. After all Nigeria is quite far removed from Cape Verde. While practically no documented records exist of slave trade between both places. Still these Hausa-Fulani matches are third in place after Fula & North African matches in my survey and more numerous than for example Senegalese matches (see this overview)!

I am pretty sure that these Hausa-Fulani matches are ultimately caused by way of shared Upper Guinean DNA. As my Nigerian AncestryDNA survey findings show that Hausa-Fulani all consistently showed a considerable “Senegal” score (prior to the update) in addition of usually also primary “Nigeria” scores. I have also seen the DNA matches being reported for two Hausa-Fulani. And unsurprisingly they often tend to be closely related with Fula DNA testers from Upper Guinea. However only a chromosome browser might confirm I suppose or perhaps also triangulation with Fula matches. See these links for actual Hausa-Fulani results:

A typical ancestral scenario might involve one Fula man residing in for example Senegambia or Guinea in the mid 1700’s. Due to local warfare he ends up being deported as a captive to Cape Verde. His brother however decides to migrate eastwards as many Fula people had been doing then for quite some time already. He finally settles down in northern Nigeria (Sokoto empire). Where his descendants eventually intermingled with the native Hausa people. Resulting in a present-day DNA match with a Cape Verdean!

27 thoughts on “Igbo, Yoruba or Hausa-Fulani? Nigerian AncestryDNA results 2013-2018

  1. Thanks for the break down. I agree with your research that AncestryDNA understates and 23andme overstates Nigerian DNA results for African Americans. On a previous post you indicated that 23andme Nigerian results, includes Cameroon. My Nigerian result on 23andme is 34.4%, but as you have stated in a past post that amount would include Cameroon and Benin. My question for you. Is it possible that the Nigerian results on 23andme also includes Niger, Chad and the Central African Republic? I ask that, because on multiple Gedmatch admixture models I noticed that the Kaba people come out as population sources at a much higher and closer distance for me than any of the Nigerian ethnic groups that you mentioned in your post. The Bulala people of Chad are another group of people that come out in my results, but at a much lower and further distance.

    My second question is what do you think of a tool like Gedmatch?

    Liked by 1 person

    • Is it possible that the Nigerian results on 23andme also includes Niger, Chad and the Central African Republic?

      You mean for African Americans and other Afro-descendants in the Americas right? I suppose hypothetically it is possible. But almost certainly it would be a very minimal % as Trans Atlantic Slave Trade is known to have impacted these countries only by very small numbers (if at all). Unlike Trans-Saharan slave trade.

      Either way generally speaking it seems that “Nigeria” on 23andme is more so focused on southern Nigerian samples. I have seen 3 northern Nigerian results sofar (2 most likely Hausa-Fulani, third one I’m not sure) and their “Nigerian” scores are considerably lower than for my southern Nigerian survey participants. On average only about 34%! Versus around 90% for southern Nigerians. The two Hausa-Fulani results do show a significant amount of “Senegambian & Guinean” (around 20%) which speaks in favour of the predictive accuracy of that category and is in line with my AncestryDNA findings discussed in this blog post. Intriguingly they also show minor amounts of “South Eastern African” and “Sudanese”. In line again with my AncestryDNA findings for the “Southeastern Bantu” region. Despite the labeling on either Ancestry or 23andme more so indicative of Nilo-Saharan/Chadic affiliations in their case.

      In fact I would assume that people from especially Chad or CAR (depending on ethnic background) would also score substantial amounts of “South Eastern African” and “Sudanese”. And in this way such scores would be much more indicative for that kind of lineage than “Nigerian”. Although of course multiple ancestral scenarios would be possible. And I suppose historically most plausible would be inheritance by way of a Hausa-Fulani ancestor or otherwise from the West African Sahel zone:

      https://tracingafricanroots.com/maps/sahel-interior/

      what do you think of a tool like Gedmatch?

      Here’s my opinion about Gedmatch: it is a very common misconception that its socalled Oracle predictions may depict shared ancestry with the listed reference populations. This is however NOT the case! It merely measures genetic similarity with a given selection of samples and not actual genealogical descent. These reference population might seem impressively specific and exact. However the truth is that your DNA is being compared to only a small and inherently limited subset of Africa’s VAST diversity which literally includes thousands of ethnic groups! (see this section of my blog: https://tracingafricanroots.wordpress.com/maps/ethno-linguistic/ )

      In order for you to establish a truly verifiable genetic connection with Africans it is best to search for autosomal African DNA matches. It will also help you put your regional breakdown into better perspective. See also:

      https://tracingafricanroots.wordpress.com/2017/05/10/how-to-find-those-elusive-african-dna-matches-on-ancestry-com/
      https://tracingafricanroots.com/african-dna-matches/

      To be honest I have never taken much notice of Gedmatch and other third party websites because I found their ancestral categories not up to par with AncestryDNA (before the update) and also not with 23andme (after its most recent update). Going by other people’s reactions I also find Gedmatch to be highly confusing and potentially misleading because of the way their results are presented as seemingly very “precise” and “specific”. When in fact such a presumed accuracy cannot be attained with current DNA testing technology. AncestryDNA’s & 23andme’s country name labeling may be misleading as well, but on a different scale I would say. Especially since they do mention the limitations of their “estimates” and Ancestry also quite clearly illustrate the inevitable overlap with their regional maps.

      The labeling of ancestral categories is trickier than many people may realize. But I find it more reproachable when false hope is being generated of pinpointing a particular “tribe” based on the ethnic labeling of DNA scores which again are merely based on some measure of genetic similarity with a given selection of samples and not actual genealogical descent! The shakiness of these Oracle predictions is best revealed by simply experimenting with other calculators. You will quickly find that each time different results will appear. This variance being caused by the particular tweaking of algorithm and constellation with other reference populations! In other words nothing exact about it! And not really even indicative I would say going by the Gedmatch results of actual Africans I have seen which were usually off.

      Like

  2. Thorough as always, Fonte. I always enjoy reading these posts. It’s interesting that you picked up affinities in the old Ancestry results. It seems with the new update, too, that you can distinguish between southern and northern Nigerians, with the region being more weighted to Hausa-Fulani than the previous update.

    To drive home how poor Ancestry’s current update is, all of my Nigerian matches are either Igbo or related southeast Nigerian groups, yet my current largest African region is Benin/Togo (29%) vs. the next largest Cameroon, Congo, & Southern Bantu peoples (21%). Even the old version didn’t exactly do my Nigerian ancestry justice. I only scored 1% Nigerian, while my biggest African region was even further west with me scoring 22% Ivory Coast/Ghana with Cameroon, Congo, & Southern Bantu Peoples coming in a distant second (14%).

    I really do want to test with 23andMe, but I just haven’t had the funds to do it. Because as it stands, aside knowing I have significant descent from Igbo people brought to the Southern U.S., I really don’t have any idea what my true largest African region percentage is. I’d simply be happy to know if I’m more descended from Western African groups or Bantu peoples, and Ancestry can’t even seem to tell me that.

    Liked by 1 person

    • Thanks! I have recently seen an interesting result for a Northern Nigerian who still got 43% “Nigeria” after the update. But otherwise his breakdown still seems off. You can see his Youtube video if you scroll down on the main page featuring Nigerian AncestryDNA results. I have also included a video there for a Hausa-Fulani girl but her “Nigeria” dropped from 65% to 25%! I am really hoping that Ancestry will solve this mess they created for detecting Nigerian lineage. Would be particularly great if they also follow up on my suggestion to create at least 3 Nigerian “migrations” or genetic communities: based on a substantial amount of DNA matches from either southwest, southeast or north Nigeria.

      I think 23andme will be able to give you atleast a credible maximum of possibly Nigerian lineage and also a credible minimum of Central African lineage. It’s still not perfect of course 😉 but it might bring you closer to answering the question if you’re more so descended from West African ancestors rather than Central/Southern African ones. Also if you happen to get “Ghanaian, Liberian and Sierra Leonean” in first place I would take that as a meaningful finding. As sofar in my AA survey (n=95) this only happens for about 25% of my survey group. AA’s usually receiving “Nigerian” in first place, which should reflect some degree of overstating things, if you take it too literally. But not that surprising as it will also include some DNA which is actually tied to ancestors from Benin/Togo Ghana to the west and Cameroon to the east. So still useful to know. But intriguingly many people with higher “Ghanaian, Liberian and Sierra Leonean” amounts tend to have SC roots!

      Just my 2 cents but based on your previous AncestryDNA breakdown I am inclined to think you would be more so West African descended. The 1% “Nigeria” score you received was peculiar indeed. But from what i’ve seen for Brazilians and Haitians the “Cameroon/Congo” region combined with “Southeastern Bantu” was usually doing a pretty good job at detecting Central/Southern African lineage (before the update). It should be interesting in your case to find out to what approximate degree your former “Cameroon/Congo” score was reflecting Biafra connections (incl. Cameroon) for you rather than Central African ones.

      Like

      • What is interesting is that MyHeritage DNA gives me 32% Nigeria, and nearly 20% Sierra Leone (and 9% “Kenya” which I would guess is measuring East African Bantus). And what’s more interesting is that I got 0% “Central Africa,” which is a proxy for west-central Africa, and 0% “West Africa,” which tells me that my African DNA was very specific to fit into those two regions so wholely. So, yeah, I suspect you are right that I’m more West African descended than Bantu. I think that’s what 23andMe would show.

        The 32% Nigerian is kind of what my gut tells me is correct. I expect it to be about half my African ancestry, and the largest one. The full African matches I’ve found also point to this, with the closest relatives being either my Igbo cousins or regions west (Ewe in Ghana, Grebo in Liberia, etc.). My lowest matched African matches are my Bantu cousins (Shona from Zimbabwe, Nsenga from Zambia, etc.)

        Does 23andMe ever have sales? It seems like their basic test is always US$100.

        Like

        • Lol, funny you should ask as I just got an email from 23andme today asking me to upgrade as i am on one of their earliest chip versions (V2). They’re asking US$100 haha. I don’t really pay attention to their sales otherwise. But I did notice that Ancestry has them quite regularly, almost every holiday it seems.

          Like

          • Ancestry has sales almost every other month. lol I got mine as a Christman present for myself when it was on sale.

            BTW, my African matches are making more sense as they are connected to more of my family. I’ve found all my Bantu matches my dad also has, and it makes sense since most of his background traces back to South Carolina. Whereas, my dad doesn’t match ANY of my Igbo cousins (at least he hasn’t yet been matched with them), which makes sense since my mother’s family traces back to colonial Virginia where the Igbo are known to have prominently featured in the early African population.

            I really would like to get my mother tested, but she’s been very wary of the process. It would help so much in tracing my African roots if she would. Her sister, of course, has taken the test, but that’s still often too great a genetic difference to narrow things down, especially when you go that far back in time.

            Liked by 1 person

  3. As usual, this is excellent work as well as a great analysis. You are so right regarding AncestryDNA most recent ethnicity estimates update KILLED the relevance and correlation of African DNA breakdown, particular for those of us in the Diaspora. 23andMe, I must say, has stepped up its game. Its AC not only more accurately corresponds with my ancestry (paper trail) but also closely duplicates my original AncestryDNA ethnicity estimates before the update. From that point of view, I gained in spite of the AncestryDNA plunder. On the other hand, AncestryDNA ethnicity estimates at the continental level improved. And it’s still an exceptional tool for discovering, finding, and or uncovering African DNA cousin matches and familial relationships – close, distant and for adoptee uniparental reconnection. Great Job!

    Liked by 1 person

    • Thank you! Fully agreed on your assessment of Ancestry & 23andme. I really hope Ancestry will fix the current situation in their next update. And I am especially looking forward to the day when Ancestry will introduce African migrations / “genetic communities”. In particular for exploring Nigerian lineage this could be very beneficial.

      Like

  4. There is a leak out that shows the new Ancestry update.

    Ancestry fixed the Nigerian Category.
    My new ancestry update:
    45% Nigerian
    32% Cameroon/Congo
    8% Mali
    6% Benin/Togo
    4% Anglo-Saxon
    3% Celtic
    1% Mexican
    1% Sardinia

    23andme’s new update (August 30): Listing the new changes
    Nigerian % went from 39% to 40.1%
    0.9% Southern East African
    0.2% Spanish & Portuguese
    0.1% Broadly West Asian & North African
    0.1% Broadly Central & South Asian
    P.S. I had the Broadly west Asian in the prior update and it remains. Maybe a Fulani connection?

    Also, my Nigerian & Cameroon/Congo score is very close, similar to what a cross river state score might be.

    Liked by 1 person

    • Thanks for letting me know! I was wondering if the upcoming update on Ancestry would do anything about the African breakdown. And it seems they have made some corrections at least! That Nigeria score is pretty much what it used to be before September 2018 right?

      Someone told Ancestry about the leak haha so I haven’t gotten the change to see any other previews of updated results. I’m curious if they will also fix the issue with currently underreported “Ivory Coast/Ghana” and “Senegal” scores. It seems they didn’t restore these ones for you…

      Either way looking forward to seeing what’s in store and if over all it will at least repair some of the damage they did last year. Although really their aim should be to bring substantial improvement!

      Competition is not standing still after all. Lol I am amazed at all the continuing updates occurring at 23andme. Although really most of it seems to be of marginal consequence.

      Like

    • I managed to see the preview of some people after all! It looks like the “Senegal” scores do get restored as well as the “Nigeria” scores. Which is great news. Although really it just brings us back to 2018. Also from what I’ve seen sofar “Ivory Coast/Ghana” still needs work…

      Below the same results for 1 Nigerian Igbo person. Original “Nigeria” score was 87%, one of the highest in my survey. After the update in 2018 only 5% left over LOL. Now it might get as high as 93%! Provided this update gets rolled out as on preview.

      Nigerian Igbo Update 2019

      Nigeria”,”lowConfidenceAssignment”:false,”lowerConfidence”:75,”percentage”:93,”upperConfidence”:100}
      “CameroonCongo”,”lowConfidenceAssignment”:false,”lowerConfidence”:0,”percentage”:7,”upperConfidence”:27}],

      Nigerian Igbo Update 2018

      “BeninTogo”,”lowConfidenceAssignment”:false,”lowerConfidence”:53,”percentage”:56,”upperConfidence”:67},
      “CameroonCongo”,”lowConfidenceAssignment”:false,”lowerConfidence”:0,”percentage”:39,”upperConfidence”:39}
      Nigeria”,”lowConfidenceAssignment”:false,”lowerConfidence”:0,”percentage”:5,”upperConfidence”:25}],

      Nigerian Igbo Original results 2018

      “Nigeria”,”lowConfidenceAssignment”:false,”lowerConfidence”:69,”percentage”:87,”upperConfidence”:100},
      “BeninTogo”,”lowConfidenceAssignment”:false,”lowerConfidence”:0,”percentage”:11,”upperConfidence”:25},
      “CameroonCongo”,”lowConfidenceAssignment”:true,”lowerConfidence”:0,”percentage”:1,”upperConfidence”:6},
      “AfricaSanPygmy”,”lowConfidenceAssignment”:true,”lowerConfidence”:0,”percentage”:0,”upperConfidence”:1},
      “IvoryGhana”,”lowConfidenceAssignment”:true,”lowerConfidence”:0,”percentage”:0,”upperConfidence”:2}],

      Like

    • Joshua, if I may, what is your ethnic background? I’m surprised to see “Mexican” being given it’s own category; I would hope they are not going in that direction which would remove a lot of diversity from bi and tri-racial hispanics/Latinos.

      Like

      • Lol I was also surprised when i saw that. But keep in mind that these preview results (obtained by a hack) use different labeling from the actual website. It’s more like software labeling. So for example for Irish it will say “Celtic” and for English & Northwest European” it will say “AngloSaxon”. Most of the African regions are labeled the same way except “Eastern African” which is “Luhya”

        Use this link if you want to try out for yourself 😉

        Like

        • Oh, I realize the labels are placeholders, but I suspect it’s a term to define hispanics/Latinos. Maybe, MAYBE it’s a description for another Native American category, but I doubt it.

          Like

          • Oh, there it is!

            Proposed 2019:

            Nigeria: 30%
            Anglo Saxon: 17%
            Cameroon/Congo: 14%
            Germany 13%
            Mali: 9%
            Benin/Togo: 7%
            Noryway: 3%
            IvoryGhana: 2%
            Celtic: 2%
            Slavic: 2%
            Senegal: 1%

            HUGE improvement for my African ancestry, of course, going from 0% Nigeria to 30%, which nearly exactly matches the 30% of so I get on my-heritage. It also looks to have retained my father and his mother’s Native American, too. Nigeria is now each of their largest region’s, too, but they also show Cameroon/Congo as their second largest region and closer to their Nigerian than mine, which makes sense given their heritage is from South Carolina. So, this seems to be a major improvement from what I can tell for the African regions.

            I’m less sure that this is more accurate for the European regions given what I know of that part of my background. My dad and his mother used to have “Baltic,” which we took for Russian as she had that in the even older version, so we think there must be some old Eastern European ancestor somewhere in there. But now this region appears to be totally gone from them and given to me.

            Liked by 1 person

            • Well they definitely seem to have brought “Nigeria” back to life haha. Your former “Ivory Coast/Ghana” score was not restored though, it used be your top region right?

              Like

              • Yes, my Ivory Coast/Ghana was my largest region, originally, at 22%. But after the most recent update, this proposed update, and my only 5% Akan on DNA Land – and that’s not even to mention, simply, that Akans were not very numerous in the colonies that became the United States – I’m chalking that up to being a fluke. My current 8% and the proposed 2% make much more sense than my original 22% given my ethnic background and my Ancestry migrations. My other African regions like Mali and Sengal are largely consistent across the three updates.

                Anyway, it looks like my proposed Nigerian ate up my unusually high Benin/Togo score.

                Like

          • Yeah i was wanting to show you the updated results of some Ghanaians & Liberians I am sharing with. As afterall “Ivory Coast/Ghana” could also be an indicator of Liberian DNA. But i guess this will have to wait, lol. I have no idea when they are planning to roll this update out, except that it is supposed to be “later this year”.

            Like

  5. A little tangent, but I just got through reading Barracoon, a firsthand account of one of the last survivors of the slaver Clotilda. Oluale Kossola was from the Isha subgroup of the Yoruba in Bante in what is today Benin. His accounts of pre-contact culture of his subgroup as fascinating, as well as the complicated dynamics they had with the neighboring Fon-dominated Dahomey Kingdom. Being that he spent the first 19 years of his life in Bante, it was amazing what he was able to remember and maintain of his culture in the founding of Africatown in Mobile, Alabama. His tales of his childhood and adolescence in his village are beyond fascinating. Apparently, the Isha people still exist; it would have been worthy of anthropologist to have gone back to Bante to see how much of his story they could have verified. He obviously still has kin there to this day, I’m sure.

    Close back to subject, it just continues to drive home how difficult it is for the disaspora to trace back to any one group in West Africa. Here he was captured by the Fon Dahomey empire a Yoruba and shipped out from the Bight of Benin. The Fon apparently captured all kinds of tribal affiliates since the trade was so lucrative. They even apparently had a whole “season” devoted to these slave “wars.” In contrast, at least in the words of Kossola, his Yoruba subgroup learned military tactics, but only as defense against the likes of the Fons and others and were largely peaceful and not involved in the trade. It’s probably why the Fon featured less prominently in the diaspora. In a weird way, this aggressiveness if probably what kept them from becoming major victims of the trade.

    Another interesting thing was how despised the coastal Kru peoples were by the inland tribes, since they often worked directly with the European traffickers as porters and such, transportating slaves from the coast to the ships and vice versa by the hundreds-at-a-time. What a sorrowful scene that must have been.

    Lastly, the book was also interesting in that it gave the birth ethnicities of the 32 founders of Africatown. Most were Yoruba, a few were Fon, but one of them was a Hausa. It’s kind of got me curious about the way a relatively small group of Hausa got down to the coast to be trafficked.

    Liked by 1 person

    • That book has been on my to read list for a while now. Sounds like it’s indeed a very fascinating account! Very precious to have such contemporary sources which also include African perspectives. I have a link on my blog which features Life Stories of West Africans in Diaspora (see Links (General)). It has many such stories.

      One of them is about a Kanuri man (ethnic group in northeastern Nigeria) who got enslaved by Fulani warriors in the early 1800’s. He was then sold on by Hausa’s, passing through Borgu (western Nigeria/northern Benin) ending up as a slave in Oyo among the Yorubas. After some years he was then sold to Europeans on the coast. I imagine a similar trajectory may also have occurred for many other northern Nigerians such as Hausa captives. His slave ship was intercepted by the English however. And so he was transferred to Sierra Leone where it is said that no less than 200 of his fellow country men (Kanuri) were also present!

      See also this link:

      http://www.tubmaninstitute.ca/sites/default/files/file/Ali%20Eisami_0.pdf

      Like

      • Yes, the book is fascinating, but short enough that you leave it wanting so much more. I ended up reading it over a few hours over three or four days; it’s really not long enough, but it’s piecing together scattered memories of a 60-something year old man for whom English was not his first language, obviously, and for which the interviewer did not speak Yoruba, so it’s understandable if it’s not even more detailed and long.

        For some reason, I’d not even thought about empires of Oyo or Benin being the vector for these groups being part of the diaspora! It makes total sense that if they’d traded with the groups and empires to the north, that this also involved the trade of humans

        BTW, reading more about the Yoruba, I guess I never realized how many of them live even as far west as Togo. I knew Yoruba land crossed the modern Nigerian/Benin border, but it would make sense that the “Benin/Togo” region also includes a lot of Yoruba Nigerians.

        Like

  6. A bit of a random question, but can anyone tell by the name “Ekwuocha” what this person’s Nigerian ancestry is? I can’t seem to figure out which part of the country it’s from, and this match for me at Ancestry seems to have took the test and never really interacted on the site, so I can’t ask them.

    Like

    • I think you already asked once right? I still think it’s likely to be Igbo (Anamabra state) going by FB profiles, but not sure. Hopefully someone reading this comment section might have more advice.

      Also random but i find Nigerian names really cool sounding haha. If you look into their actual meaning it is also very interesting how they are devised. Especially southern Nigerian ones. I find that for Muslim West Africans it is often not possible to tell which country they might be from because so many names are widespread among them. While for coastal West Africans for the most part the surnames are pretty much unique and confined to specific countries and even specific ethnic groups for the most part.

      Like

      • Southern Nigerian given names are something else. They almost always have something to do with some aspect of the Christian god or religion. I’d never realized just how religious the people are, and I’ve always wondered if there was something about Igbo and Yoruba religion that helped Christianity to catch in so fast, down there, because they are such fervent/zealous believers.

        Yeah, I’d forgotten I’d asked about that surname. And you’re right that Anambra seems to be the origin of the name, and this is the literal heart of Igboland from what I can gather.

        Liked by 1 person

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s